About the tests

A test model has been developed for the Mountain Academy in collaboration with Rotterdam University. This model ensures the quality of the assessments in the Mountain Academy and ensures a reliable and valid review of the level of the student. Besides the two core standards reliability and validity, we also took the standards efficiency and authenticity into account.


A test is reliable if it’s specific, objective and differentiated. This is ensured by using a comprehensive set of multiple choice questions that exclude subjective judgments by the evaluator. Different key stages of testing are used, knowingly and deliberately, in order to differentiate. From the common educational stadard taxonomy of Bloom the learning levels ‘knowledge’, ‘insight’ and ‘practice’ are included in the assessments of the Academy. The questions are categorized within these levels and as a result it’s possible to differentiate within a module to a certain level. The knowledge questions are directed to the reproducing of the offered knowledge. The insight questions tell if the student can give a meaning to this knowledge and the practice questions assess if the student can use the knowledge or can give a meaning to the knowledge, and apply the knowledge to his new or anomalous situations.


With the standard validity, the point is to actually measure the intended purpose. This is assured by working with a key matrix in which sets of questions per learning objective/component have been developed and where the pre-mentioned taxonomical levels are taken into account. This ensures that the questions are a representative reflection of the learning content of the module.


The testing is efficient because it is very accessible (online) and the design, layout and instruction texts are very clear and unambiguous and the questions are supported by images, if necessary.


In writing the Mountain Academy we have used various websites and even more literature. If you want to delve further into snow safety then the list below is absolutely worth the read.



Associazione Intereggionale Neve e Valanghe
Association Nationale pour l’Étude de la Neige et des Avalanches
European Avalanche Warning Services
Lawinenwarndienste Österreichs
American Avalanche Association

North America

Avalanche Canada
Colorado Avalanche Information Center
International Snow Science Workshop
Utah Avalanche Center
Avalanche Canada
Lawinenwarndienst Tirol

International rescue protocols

Be searchable
Best Prevention Practices Survey Results FINAL
Recommandation sur les termes décrivant les différentes phases dans une recherche en avalanche
Search Strip Width to be Used with Transceivers
Soyez localisable
The ABC’s (and D) of digging
Use of Terms Describing the Search Phases in an Avalanche Search


3x3 Lawinen, Risikomanagement im Wintersport - Werner Munter

3x3 Avalanches, La gestion du risque dans les sports d’hiver - Werner Munter
Avalanche essentials - Bruce Tremper
Avalanches, mieux les comprendre - St. Harvey / H. Rhyner / J. Schweizer
Bergsport Winter - Technik-Taktik-Sicherheit - Winkler / Brehm / Haltmeier
Bergwetter - Karl Gabl
Die weiße Gefahr - Martin Engler
Estimer et limiter le risque Avalanche - Robert Bolognesi
Free Skiing. How to adapt to the mountain - Jimmy Oden
Lawine. Die 10 entscheidenden Gefahrenmuster erkennen - Nair / Mair
Lawinen und Risikomanagement - Wicky / Marbacher / Müller / Wassermann
Lawinenkunde - St. Harvey / H. Rhyner / J. Schweizer
Les secrets de la neige - Anena
Meteo de Montagne - Thillet / Schueller
Mountain weather - Jeff Renner
Risikowahrnehmung im Lawinengelaende - Kristensen / Genswein / Munter
Snow Card, Lawinen-Risiko-Check - Martin Engler
Snow Sense, A guide to evaluating Snow Avalanche Hazard - Fredston / Fessler
Sports de montagne d’hiver - Technique, Tactique, Sécurité - Winkler / Brehm / Haltmeier
Staying alive in Avalanche terrain - Bruce Tremper
Sauvetage avalanche en autonomie: guide pratique - ANENA
The avalanche handbook - Mc Clung / Schaerer