About the tests
A test model has been developed for the Mountain Academy in collaboration with Rotterdam University. This model ensures the quality of the assessments in the Mountain Academy and ensures a reliable and valid review of the level of the student. Besides the two core standards reliability and validity, we also took the standards efficiency and authenticity into account.
A test is reliable if it’s specific, objective and differentiated. This is ensured by using a comprehensive set of multiple choice questions that exclude subjective judgments by the evaluator. Different key stages of testing are used, knowingly and deliberately, in order to differentiate. From the common educational stadard taxonomy of Bloom the learning levels ‘knowledge’, ‘insight’ and ‘practice’ are included in the assessments of the Academy. The questions are categorized within these levels and as a result it’s possible to differentiate within a module to a certain level. The knowledge questions are directed to the reproducing of the offered knowledge. The insight questions tell if the student can give a meaning to this knowledge and the practice questions assess if the student can use the knowledge or can give a meaning to the knowledge, and apply the knowledge to his new or anomalous situations.
With the standard validity, the point is to actually measure the intended purpose. This is assured by working with a key matrix in which sets of questions per learning objective/component have been developed and where the pre-mentioned taxonomical levels are taken into account. This ensures that the questions are a representative reflection of the learning content of the module.
The testing is efficient because it is very accessible (online) and the design, layout and instruction texts are very clear and unambiguous and the questions are supported by images, if necessary.
In writing the Mountain Academy we have used various websites and even more literature. If you want to delve further into snow safety then the list below is absolutely worth the read.
Associazione Intereggionale Neve e Valanghe
Association Nationale pour l’Étude de la Neige et des Avalanches
European Avalanche Warning Services
American Avalanche Association
International rescue protocols
Best Prevention Practices Survey Results FINAL
Recommandation sur les termes décrivant les différentes phases dans une recherche en avalanche
Search Strip Width to be Used with Transceivers
The ABC’s (and D) of digging
Use of Terms Describing the Search Phases in an Avalanche Search
- 3x3 Lawinen, Risikomanagement im Wintersport - Werner Munter
3x3 Avalanches, La gestion du risque dans les sports d’hiver - Werner Munter
- Avalanche essentials - Bruce Tremper
- Avalanches, mieux les comprendre - St. Harvey / H. Rhyner / J. Schweizer
- Bergsport Winter - Technik-Taktik-Sicherheit - Winkler / Brehm / Haltmeier
- Bergwetter - Karl Gabl
- Die weiße Gefahr - Martin Engler
- Estimer et limiter le risque Avalanche - Robert Bolognesi
- Free Skiing. How to adapt to the mountain - Jimmy Oden
- Lawine. Die 10 entscheidenden Gefahrenmuster erkennen - Nair / Mair
- Lawinen und Risikomanagement - Wicky / Marbacher / Müller / Wassermann
- Lawinenkunde - St. Harvey / H. Rhyner / J. Schweizer
- Les secrets de la neige - Anena
- Meteo de Montagne - Thillet / Schueller
- Mountain weather - Jeff Renner
- Risikowahrnehmung im Lawinengelaende - Kristensen / Genswein / Munter
- Snow Card, Lawinen-Risiko-Check - Martin Engler
- Snow Sense, A guide to evaluating Snow Avalanche Hazard - Fredston / Fessler
- Sports de montagne d’hiver - Technique, Tactique, Sécurité - Winkler / Brehm / Haltmeier
- Staying alive in Avalanche terrain - Bruce Tremper
- Sauvetage avalanche en autonomie: guide pratique - ANENA
- The avalanche handbook - Mc Clung / Schaerer